Utilization of Polymer Gels, Polymer Enhanced Foams and Foamed Gels for Improving Reservoir Conformance
Kantzas, A., Allsopp, K. and Marentette, D.
DOI: 10.2118/97-01 & 10.2118/99-13-58
CIM paper 97-01, presented at the 48th Annual Technical Meeting of The Petroleum Society in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 8-11, 1997.
J.Can.Pet.Tech., 38(13), December 1999.
A series of experiments were performed in order to study the applicability of polymer gels, polymer enhanced foams and foamed gels in environments that are relevant to Western Canadian reservoirs. The problem of plugging fractures in tight gas reservoirs was tackled first. Three commercial technologies were evaluated and two gave spectacular results for carbonate core from Western Alberta. The testing experience led to the conclusion that chemical compositions and operating parameters are reservoir specific and need to be developed by the design team. The exercise further demonstrated that the design team should never rely on the service company alone to perform a test. On site viscosity and gelation tests must be performed to ensure that the injected product has the desired properties. This will lead to considerable savings in capital spending. In the second part of this work, a wide variety of surfactants were screened using Berea core, high pressure, moderate temperature and high salinity solutions. Polymer enhanced foams were created in various combinations. The design team had to tackle problems of adsorption versus optimum concentration, compatibility of reagents and presence of oil. Foamed gels are faced with the problem of controlling gelation while maintaining a low cost for chemicals.