Computer Assisted Tomography: From Qualitative Visualization to Quantitative Core Analysis
Kantzas, A., Marentette, D.F. and Jha, K.N.,
From Qualitative Visualization to Quantitative Core Analysis”, CIM/AOSTRA Paper No. 91-72 presented at the CIM/AOSTRA 1991 Technical Conference held in Banff, Alberta, April 21-24, 1991;
Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 31(9), September 1992, Pages 48-56.
The effects of temperature and sand content on the flow resistance of high concentration heavy oil in water emulsions have been studied experimentally. The flows were laminar in a recirculating flow test loop with pipe diameter 53 mm.
The effect of temperature could be explained through changes in the viscosity of the brine used to prepare the emulsions. Sand concentrations in the flow experiments were limited to 3% (mass) of the produced oil. Sand in the oil either increased or decreased the flow resistance depending upon the amount of water present initially in the oil. The sand flowed in a distinct layer at the bottom of the pipe and the velocity necessary to transport the sand was strongly dependent on emulsion effective viscosity.
Velocity distribution measurements and a finite element simulation showed that a region of low viscosity forms at the pipe wall as a result of oil droplet migration into the flow.